The updated World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List for 2018 has come into effect, with bodies warning athletes to take into account new changes.
Amendments were made following a nine-month consultation process, which included the WADA list expert group gathering information, circulating a draft list and reviewing submissions made.
A recommendation was then made to the WADA Executive Committee in September, with the body approving the proposed alterations.
For a substance to have been added to the list it was required to meet two of three criteria, including having the potential to enhance or enhances sport performance.
Violating the spirit of sport and having an actual or potential health risk to the athletes were two other criteria taken into account.
Among the major changes, the dosing parameters for salbutamol have been clarified by WADA as they seek to make it clear that doses should not exceed 800 micrograms over any 12-hour period.
The asthma medication is currently at the centre of a case involving Britain’s Tour de France and Vuelta a Espana winner Chris Froome, with the cyclist having been found to have had excess salbutamol in a sample taken in September.
Froome was requested to provide more information by the International Cycling Union, with the Briton seeking to provide an explanation for the positive.
Glycerol has been removed from the diuretics and masking agents section of the list, with scientific studies having shown a minimal effect on athletes’ plasma volume and the parameters of the Athlete Biological Passport.
The allowed volume and timing of intravenous infusions has increased from infusions of no more than 50 millilitres per six-hour period in 2017 to no more than a total of 100 millilitres per 12-hour period in 2018.
Infusions and injections of any substance in excess of 100 millilitres per 12-hour period will be prohibited at all times, except for those legitimately received in the course of hospital treatment, surgical procedures, or clinical diagnostic investigations.
A therapeutic use exemption would be required if a prohibited substance is administered intravenously or via injection, regardless of whether the infusion or injection is less than 100 millilitres.
Cannabidiol has been removed from the prohibited list, unless it contains THC, the psychoactive component of marijuana.
Alcohol has been removed from the prohibited list, with the substance having previously been banned in four sports.
The International Federations of air sports, archery, automobile and powerboating will be able to apply and enforce protocols for alcohol use as they see fit.
The substance 1,3-Dimethybutylamine has be added as an example of a stimulant, with athletes warned to remain vigilant regarding the substance as it can be found in some dietary supplements.
WADA will hope to avoid problems seen last year when the adding of meldonium to the banned list produced a raft of failures before they conceded that "more research was required" to ascertain how long the substance should remain in the human body.
Meldonium, a heart medication, remains on the list for 2018.
Click Here to see the Full 2018 Prohibited List
Click Here to see A summary of major modifications and explanatory notes